# Flapjax: A Programming Language for Ajax Applications

I am immensely pleased to report that our paper on Flapjax was accepted to OOPSLA 2009.

This paper presents Flapjax, a language designed for contemporary Web applications. These applications communicate with servers and have rich, interactive interfaces. Flapjax provides two key features that simplify writing these applications. First, it provides event streams, a uniform abstraction for communication within a program as well as with external Web services. Second, the language itself is reactive: it automatically tracks data dependencies and propagates updates along those data?ows. This allows developers to write reactive interfaces in a declarative and compositional style.

Flapjax is built on top of JavaScript. It runs on unmodi?ed browsers and readily interoperates with existing JavaScript code. It is usable as either a programming language (that is compiled to JavaScript) or as a JavaScript library, and is designed for both uses. This paper presents the language, its design decisions, and illustrative examples drawn from several working Flapjax applications.

The real heroes of this story are my co-authors. Leo, Arjun, and Greg were there for the initial, heroic-effort-based implementation. Jacob and Aleks wrote incredible applications with our dog food. Shriram, of course, saw the whole thing through. Very few of my contributions remain: the original compiler is gone (thank goodness); my thesis work is discussed briefly in How many DOMs? on page 15. Here’s to a great team and a great experience (and a great language)!

Benjamin Pierce, Stephanie Weirich, and I submitted a paper to POPL 2010; it’s about contracts. Here’s the abstract:

Since Findler and Felleisen introduced higher-order contracts, many variants of their system have been proposed. Broadly, these fall into two groups: some follow Findler and Felleisen in using latent contracts, purely dynamic checks that are transparent to the type system; others use manifest contracts, where refinement types record the most recent check that has been applied. These two approaches are generally assumed to be equivalent—different ways of implementing the same idea, one retaining a simple type system, and the other providing more static information. Our goal is to formalize and clarify this folklore understanding.

Our work extends that of Gronski and Flanagan, who defined a latent calculus \lambda_C and a manifest calculus \lambda_H, gave a translation \phi from \lambda_C to \lambda_H, and proved that if a \lambda_C term reduces to a constant, then so does its \phi-image. We enrich their account with a translation \psi in the opposite direction and prove an analogous theorem for \psi.

More importantly, we generalize the whole framework to dependent contracts, where the predicates in contracts can mention variables from the local context. This extension is both pragmatically crucial, supporting a much more interesting range of contracts, and theoretically challenging. We define dependent versions of \lambda_C (following Findler and Felleisen’s semantics) and \lambda_H, establish type soundness—a challenging result in itself, for \lambda_H—and extend \phi and \psi accordingly. Interestingly, the intuition that the two systems are equivalent appears to break down here: we show that \psi preserves behavior exactly, but that a natural extension of \phi to the dependent case will sometimes yield terms that blame more because of a subtle difference in the treatment of dependent function contracts when the codomain contract itself abuses the argument.

Edit on 2009-11-03: there’s a newer version, as will appear in POPL 2010.

Edit on 2010-01-22: I have removed the link to the submission, since it is properly subsumed by our published paper.

# Debounce and other callback combinators

It is serendipitous that I noticed a blog post about a callback combinator while adding a few drops to the Flapjax bucket.

Flapjax is nothing more than a coherent set of callback combinators. The key insight to this set of callback combinators is the “Event” abstraction — a Node in FJ’s implementation. Once callbacks are Nodes, you get two things:

1. a handle that allows you to multiply operate on a single (time-varying) data source, and
2. a whole host of useful abstractions for manipulating handles: mergeE, calmE, switchE, etc.

The last I saw the implementations of Resume and Continue, they were built using this idea. The more I think about it, the more the FJ-language seems like the wrong approach: the FJ-library is an awesome abstraction, in theory and practice.

# Practical OCaml

Suppose you were trying to run some experiments about L1 D-caches. (You may also suppose that this is a homework problem, but that’s life.) You’re given a trace of loads and stores at certain addresses. These addresses are 32-bits wide, and the trace is in a textual format:
1A2B3C4D L DEADBEEF S 1B2B3C4D L  represents a load to 0x1a2b3c4d, followed by a store to 0xdeadbeef, followed by a load to 0x1b2b3c4d. (You might notice the two loads may be in conflict, depending on the block and cache size and the degree associativity. In that case, you might be in my computer architecture class…)

This is problematic. Naturally, you’d like to process the trace in OCaml. But did I mention that the trace is rather large — some 600MB uncompressed? And that some of the addresses require all 32 bits? And some of the statistics you need to collect require 32 bits (or more)? OCaml could process the entire trace in under a minute, but the boxing and unboxing of int32s and int64s adds more than twenty minutes (even with -unsafe). I felt bad about this until a classmate using Haskell had a runtime of about two and a half hours. Yeesh. C can do this in a minute or less. And apparently the traces that real architecture researchers use are gigabytes in size. Writing the simulator in OCaml was a joy; testing and running it was not.

There were some optimizations I didn’t do. I was reading memop-by-memop rather than in blocks of memops. I ran all of my simulations in parallel: read in a memop, simulate the memop in each type of cache, repeat. I could have improved cache locality by reading in a block of memops and then simulating in sequence; I’m not sure how the compiler laid out my statistics structures. I could’ve also written the statistics functions in C on unboxed unsigned longs, but didn’t have the patience. I’d still have to pay for boxing and unboxing the C structure every time, though. Still: one lazy summer week, I may give the code generation for boxed integers a glance.

# Boomerang v0.1 available

The indomitable Nate Foster has released Boomerang v0.1. Congratulations, Nate!

Boomerang is a bidirectional programming language over strings: it maps input strings to output strings, and then it maps outputs back to inputs. This is perfect for translation, synchronization, and other tasks: think of them as update-able views in a database. Check it out!

Via Dave Herman and Lambda the Ultimate: ADTs in JavaScript 1.8. Shouldn’t be too hard to Flapjax-ify, which might make the handling of lists a little nicer.

I have to say, I can breathe a sigh of relief now that the expression problem has been solved in JavaScript. All of the interpreters and compilers I’d written in JavaScript were so inextensible!

# C# GC Leaks

Reading this experience report from the DARPA challenge via Slashdot, I wondered: if event registration caused object retention, how can we deal with these memory issues in Flapjax?

Worrying about memory leaks in JavaScript is a losing battle — the browsers have different collectors. But given functional reactive programming in other settings (e.g., Java/C#), how can we solve this kind of problem? We looked at deletion briefly, but never had time to address the issue in detail. The complexity in our case is that the event registration encodes the entire application — how do you decide that a certain code path is dead? It may be helpful to view a functional-reactive program as a super-graph of data producing, splitting, merging, and consuming nodes; the application state is the subgraph induced by the active nodes reaching the consumers. Then there’s a certain static overhead for the program, plus the dynamic overhead of its active components.

Most of the Flapjax code I’ve written has been for the user interface, so binding and unbinding isn’t much of an issue: if the interface changes temporarily (e.g., tabs), the older behavior is usually recoverable and shouldn’t be collected. When working with more complex models with longer lived state, a deletion policy is more important. Shriram has been working on larger Flapjax applications with application logic as well as presentation — I wonder if he’s run into serious GC issues.

# Lifting in Flapjax

In the Flapjax programming language, ‘lifting’ is the automatic conversion of operations on ordinary values into operations on time-varying values. Lifting gets its name from an explicit operation used with Flapjax-as-a-library; we use the transform method call or the lift_{b,e} functions. To better understand lifting, we’ll walk through a simple implementation of the Flapjax library.

I consider the (excellent) Flapjax tutorial prerequisite reading, so it will be hard to follow along if you’re not vaguely familiar with Flapjax.

The following code is all working JavaScript (in Firefox, at least), so feel free to follow along.

# Another nasty bug — and an idea

I spent about two hours tracking down a DOM node sharing bug — nodes were being put into a new structure outside of the document before the salient data had been read out. While there was no information in these nodes, the lens system insisted that they still be there. (More on that — eventually.)

After finally tracking it down and writing a version of cloneNode that also copies event handlers, everything worked. Between this and the last prototype aliasing bug I had, I got an idea. A programmer could keep a “bug journal”, a list of bugs found and described first by their behavior, then by their solution (and, if those two aren’t descriptive enough, the underlying problem should be described as well). For example, two days ago I ran into my first genuine typing bug in JavaScript — a type checker would have rejected my program, and from the errors generated it wasn’t obvious where the problem was.

This practice could be useful in a few ways. First, the process of writing down the description can help the programmer find the solution. Tedious, but perhaps worthwhile. Surely some bugs would end up being described post facto, since it’s not worth the time when the fix is fairly clear. Second, the solution may add to a ‘bag of tricks’ at the programmer’s/team’s disposal. Third, the bug and solution tease out invariants in the program, and so the bug journal could be gleaned for inter-module and system-level documentation.

Fourth, and dearest to my heart, I think it’s an interesting way to evaluate programming languages. The bug log of a programmer writing an e-mail interface in Java and that of one writing such an interface in JavaScript would provide for some interesting contrasts. To provide more than anecdotal evidence, you’d need to use a much larger sample size of programmers and kinds of programs being written.

I think the bug journal would differ profoundly from examination of bug tracking logs. Only the truly mysterious bugs and the large, architectural shortcomings make it into the tracker. On a daily basis, programmers struggle with making buggy code workable — before it ever hits version control. So bug tracking logs can highlight difficulties in design and with the team, but a bug journal shows exactly what a programmer has to deal with.